‘Brain Structure and Function’ and ‘Brain Topography’

Published: 2021-07-07 00:08:59
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Comparing the JournalsThe two journals selected are ‘Brain Structure and Function’ and ‘Brain Topography.’ Both the journals are accredited and well-known, and the articles must have been published after thorough research and evaluation. Therefore, either of the journals can be used for publishing the article. The two journal articles on how the brain works and brain topography fit the theme of my paper accurately. The data and ideas are presented in a clear manner and both the journals adhere to the guidelines. The journals do not have a word limit or a limit to the number of pages that can be used to present the research.However, I’d want for my article to be published in Brain structure and Function specifically because the journal publishes researches that provide an insight of the brain. Similarly, that is the niche of my article. The studies which are published in this journal are cases that contribute to understanding the human brain better. Studies related to the brain are central to this particular journal. Moreover, the journal allows the publishing of full length papers with references and reviews that discuss the relevant topic. Therefore, I would prefer my article to be published in Brain Structure and Function because my paper fits well into the journal.Comparing the ArticlesThe two articles selected from each journal are peer reviewed and published under Brain Structure and Function and Brain Topography. The first article (Karnath et al.) has been taken from Brain Structure and Function, whereas the second article has been taken from Brain Topography (Fins). The two articles while adhering to the rules of publication answered the research question adequately. The research papers deal with different strategies, and the researcher has shown flexibility in accepting the results of his findings. Moreover, the limitations of the studies have been acknowledged while summarizing those findings. The skeptical approach of the research seen in qualitative studies where emerging ideas are allowed to change the direction of the research. To summarize, the studies are devoid of any procedural issues that may have affected the validity of the findings and results. However, the assessment strategies remain little understood. Last but not least, the ethical standards have been met by the researchers.IntroductionIn the first research, the author has emphasized on the fact that the human brain is the most complex structure in nature, a masterwork of advancement. Compacted in its 3-pound mass of wrinkled and collapsed tissue are about a hundred billion nerve cells, unpredictably connected to one another by trillions of associations, or neural connections more than the number of stars in the Milky Way. Electrical driving forces and substance signals travel endlessly through this firmly looped system, cell to cell, crosswise over wide territories of the cerebrum. Incomprehensibly, the human brain is boggling yet remarkably sorted out, this hive of action is in charge of each part of our experience.Each idea, feeling, physical sensation and act has its starting point in the cerebrum, from the simple attention to touch to the most refined idea. That we are aware of the world, and that we can live on the planet — on account of the programmed operations of our souls, lungs and different organs — we owe to our brains. Throughout the hundreds of years, we people have utilized our brains to disentangle the riddles of our universe. Maybe the most driven undertaking of all has been the endeavor to comprehend the human brain itself. At a quickening pace, analysts are testing how it works, and what can turn out badly. I chose this specific article, as it was not only a credible source that was well documented and supported but due to the clarity of the information presented. The ideas cited were comprehensive and discussed a wide range of points on my topic. The article written by Alan seems to be more credible due to the expertise of the author and the evidence provided with the text.Researchers have, for quite a while now, fortified with various sorts of sources of information, for example, individual neurons that have been confined to study. To have enough factual power, these analyses ordinarily included invigorating a neuron, again and again, to get a general thought of how it reacts to various signs. In spite of the fact that these reviews have yielded a great deal of data, they have their particular constraints (Fins).MaterialIn the first research, it is being speculated that the human brain is a long lasting work in advance. Advancement of the human brain at birth is the fastest energetically through youth and puberty, yet the growth and development of the brain never stop. In the third week of growth, protein structures change on to turn some of the fetus’ immature microorganisms are cells with the potential to wind up distinctly any sort of tissue into neuronal cells and glial cells. These recently framed cells increase, move and interface with one another, guided by substance signals into the web work of the human brain. By week seven, primitive types of the cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem are evident. Birth is just the start.The human brain develops by a percentage of over 65% in the initial three months. To fuel its improvement, it requires 43 percent of the body’s everyday vitality admission until adolescence — which, a few specialists say, clarifies why physical development takes so long in people, contrasted and different species. Neurons aren’t included, and we have more neurons during childbirth than in adulthood. However, the hippocampus and amygdala, which are primitively imperative in perception and memory, aren’t completely useful until age three which may be a reason behind infants not being able to remember anything from their infancy years (Karnath et al).The second research focuses on the study of topography. The Topography involves the study of the effects of performance on fine motor control and prolonged memory. The visual system alludes to the piece of the focal sensory system that permits a living being to see. It deciphers data from obvious light to construct a portrayal of the world. The ganglion cells of the retina extend in a methodical manner to the parallel geniculate core of the thalamus and from that point to the essential visual cortex (V1); nearby spots on the retina are spoken to by adjoining neurons in the sidelong geniculate core and the essential visual cortex. This projection design has been named geology. There are many sorts of topographic maps in the visual cortices, including retinotopic maps, ocular strength maps, and introduction maps.Retinotopic maps are the least demanding to comprehend regarding geography. Retinotopic maps are those in which the picture on the retina is kept up in the cortices (V1 and the LGN). As it were, if a particular district of the cortices were harmed that individual would then have a blind side in this present reality, they would not have the capacity to see the bit of the world that related to the retina harm. Introduction maps are additionally topographic. In these maps there are cells which have an inclination to a specific introduction, the most extreme terminating rate of the cell will be accomplished at that inclination. As the introduction is moved far from the terminating rate will drop. An introduction guide is topographic because neighboring neural tissues have comparable introduction inclinations (Fins).The sound-related system is the tactile system for hearing in which the mind translates data from the recurrence of sound waves, yielding the impression of tones. Sound waves enter the ear through the sound-related channel. These waves land at the eardrum where the properties of the waves are transduced into vibrations. The vibrations go through the bones of the inward ear to the cochlea. In the cochlea, the vibrations are transduced into electrical data through the terminating of hair cells in the organ of Corti. The organ of Corti tasks in a deliberate manner to structures in the brainstem (to be specific, the cochlear cores and the mediocre colliculus), and from that point to the average geniculate core of the thalamus and the essential sound-related cortex; neighboring locales on the organ of Corti, which are themselves particular for the sound recurrence, are spoken to by adjoining neurons in the previously mentioned CNS structures.This projection design has been named tonotopy. The tonotopic design of sound data starts in the cochlea where the basilar film vibrates at various positions along its length relying on the recurrence of the sound. Higher recurrence sounds are at the base of the cochlea, in the event that it was unrolled, and low recurrence sounds are at the zenith. This plan is additionally found in the sound-related cortex in the fleeting flap. In zones that are tonotopically sorted out, the recurrence differs efficiently from low to high along the surface of the cortex, yet is moderately steady crosswise over cortical profundity. The general picture of topographic association in creatures is different tonotopic maps disseminated over the surface of the cortex (Fins).ResultBoth the researches came to a finding that might be significant to diseases like schizophrenia. Individuals with this issue don’t experience difficulty recalling things yet regularly experience difficulty sifting through immaterial or improper data. However, there is no immediate anatomical association in the mind between the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus, so it isn’t clear how messages are passed between them. In any case, Boston University’s reviews propose that there might be a backhanded, bidirectional course that includes moderate, beating mind rhythms called theta rhythms. These rhythms start in profound structures amidst the cerebrum, synchronize between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, and permit data to stream between them (Fins).ConclusionAs speculated by both the research papers, the conclusion can be drawn that the cells and chemicals of the human brain are to a great extent composed of protein. People have 20,000 to 25,000 protein structures: spirals of DNA, firmly wound on 23 sets of chromosomes inside the core of each cell. Just a little extent of protein structures are turned on in any cell at any given time. In the cerebrum, the on-off process assumes a part in such various ranges as advancement, memory, and habit. Hereditarily, we are significantly more indistinguishable than various. It is evaluated that in the vicinity of 99 and 99.9 percent of the DNA we each have is indistinguishable. In any case, these little contrasts are essential: They totally decide a few attributes, for example, the color of one’s eye, and contribute (alongside ecological impacts) to numerous others, such as stature, weight and infection hazard.Procedures, for example, contrasting indistinguishable twins (whose protein structures are all indistinguishable) to congenial twins (simply half similar), and affiliation considers (contrasting protein structures in individuals and without a characteristic or illness) help scientists comprehend the part of protein structures. In most human brain related marvels, e.g., personality traits. The same is valid with illnesses of the brain: Specific protein structures have been connected to Parkinson’s what’s more, Alzheimer’s illnesses and amyotrophic sidelong sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s sickness), for instance, however variables such as natural poisons are as often as possible ensnared. Albeit some familial strains are created by single transformations, human brain sicknesses are normally polygenic — various protein structures contribute to expanded hazard. More than 100 protein structures have been related with schizophrenia, for instance.Huntington’s malady is a special case: Mutation in a solitary quality is constantly dependable. Past helping us comprehend the human brain, hereditary research gives bits of knowledge into the science basic its ills. For example, connecting another quality to Parkinson’s sickness may propose another focus for medication advancement. Not for the better, but modern technology has completely transformed our living. Experts have claimed that the reason behind our shorter attention spans and poor memory us the excessive use of technology. The relentless use of computers and smartphones has undermined our memory, attention, and imagination (Karnath et al).Works CitedFins, Joseph J. “Deep Brain Stimulation, Brain Maps and Personalized Medicine: Lessons from the Human Genome Project.” Brain Topography (2014).Karnath, Hans-Otto. “Investigating structure and function in the healthy human brain: validity of acute versus chronic lesion-symptom mapping.” Brain Structure and Function (2016).

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