IntroductionThe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which is commonly used as an umbrella term to represent a specific type of progressive diseases for lungs. These are inclusive of diseases such as Emphysema, refractory asthma, chronic bronchitis and other forms that relate to medical conditions of bronchiectasis. One of the major indications towards having COPD is suggested through the apparent condition in which an individual suffers an alarming rate of being breathless. Presently, COPD has become one the leading issues in the health sector and categorized and ranked to be the fourth deadliest causes of death in the United States. The leading causes of COPD, with the identification of the symptoms according to each type, causes and diagnosing a treatment will be discussed in the further topic.DiscussionFor years, researchers have been looking into the commonly occurring causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Numerous researchers have been conducted into identifying the common grounds for elements that influence this, environmental factors or habits. Being one of the highest death reasons found in the United States, and becoming a leading concern for the HealthCare and Medical Science field.EtiologyA leading study into the causes of COPD has identified smoking to be one of the chief reasons for it. The findings of the study revealed that around 40-70% cases found for COPD normally accelerate with the effects being influenced to stages that exhibit symptoms of dysfunctions of cilia, increased inflammation, and injury caused due to oxidation. Other common sources for COPD are related to heightened pollution levels in the air or occupational exposure to such environments. An important factor in the case of the pathogenesis of COPD is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress, causing an imbalance for anti-proteinases and proteinases.TypesChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is implied as the symbolic representation of umbrella that encompasses two sub-types under it i.e. Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Chronic Bronchitis is identified through the symptoms of an individual developing a long-term cough with mucus being shown in it. Emphysema, in comparison to Chronic Bronchitis, exhibits symptoms with a gradually increasing damage to lung examined over time.CausesThe observed causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are related to the actual and generalized issue of an individual being exposed to high levels of irritants found excessively in areas with air pollution. Commonly noticed issues are of industrial exposures exposing a person to chemical fumes and industrialized clouds of dust (Halbert 2006). Another common issue is of preterm birth which eventually leads to lungs being damaged over time. Inherited genes are another cause of this as well.DiagnosisTo properly diagnosis a treatment for COPD, it is necessary for the doctor to properly evaluate the patient to identify and compare the apparent symptoms with that of seen in COPD. The doctor normally evaluates this through a series of questions to help them identify the symptoms, a proper analysis of the patient’s health history, medical records, and conduct a series of exams to see the extents of the symptoms (Celli et al., 2004). Spirometry is normally the ideal way through which COPD and is quite useful for locating it before it either spreads further or before it develops.ConclusionThere are numerous factors that give birth to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, while it is a general term used to define two sub-types of it such as Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Each type bearing different symptoms and causes have a properly identified diagnosis and treatment for it. Spirometry is normally the ideal way through which COPD and is quite useful for locating it. Developing an understanding and an awareness of the disease and leading causes is crucial towards clarifying the essentials of bringing about a change in environment.ReferencesCelli, B. R., MacNee, W. A. T. S., Agusti, A. A. T. S., Anzueto, A., Berg, B., Buist, A. S., … & Fein, A. (2004). Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. European Respiratory Journal, 23(6), 932-946.Halbert, R. J., Natoli, J. L., Gano, A., Badamgarav, E., Buist, A. S., & Mannino, D. M. (2006). Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal, 28(3), 523-532.