Civil Rights: Voting Rights

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IntroductionIn US history, the struggle for voting rights for the African American community is part of a century-old effort to ensure that under the US Constitution, all citizens received equal rights to vote It took years of campaigning, struggle and activism, where many stakeholders were involved who joined the voice of the advocates that led the cause and countered criticism and reluctance of a few stakeholders who wished to preserve the status quo. It undoubtedly left a great impact on American society and the world. The paper will study the movement from the historical context, and tracks the movement’s performance as it moved towards success as well as the opposition or support it received from different stakeholders. Strategies to ensure that voting rights and civil rights of African-Americans as well as other communities remain protected are also discussed and evaluated. Contemporary issues in voting rights are investigated along with recommendations that would ensure civil and voting rights protections are provided.Annotative BibliographyOverton, S. (2013). Voting Rights Disclosure. Harvard Law Review Forum, 127(19), 19-31. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2365620In a research paper entitled, Voting Disclosure by Spencer Overton, the US Supreme Court’s verdict in the landmark Shelby County v. Holder case is discussed, and that impacted voter equality legislation. Overton argues that we should not be forced to select between the Elections Clause and the Fifteenth Amendment because they can both act at the same time to avert racial discrimination in polling and to advance access to the charter for all Americans.Johnson, P. C. (2015). Voting Rights And Civil Rights Era Cold Cases: Section Five And The Five Cities Project’. Touro Law Journal Of Race, Gender, & Ethnicity & Berkeley Journal Of African-American Law & Policy, 16(2), 377-390. doi:http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15779/Z38PK8PIn an article entitled, ‘Voting Rights And Civil Rights Era Cold Cases: Section Five And The Five Cities Project’, the author discusses enfranchisement, exclusion, and denial of electoral participation in historical and contemporary times. Deprivation of the right to vote by ethnicity and race in America and the overlapping forces of disenfranchisement and inequality has been discussed with several case studies.Woodson, A. N. (2015). “There Ain’t No White People Here”: Master Narratives of the Civil Rights Movement in the Stories of Urban Youth. Urban Education, 1-28. doi:10.1177/0042085915602543The article “There Ain’t No White People Here”: Master Narratives of the Civil Rights Movement in the Stories of Urban Youth uses the hypothetical concept of master narrative to investigate ideological and historical assumptions regarding the Civil Rights Movement according to the interviewed youth in the urban community, the researcher presents four themes existing in the movement’s master narrative to demonstrate how ideologies of white supremacy are reinforced through these functions.Sturm, C. (2014). Race, Sovereignty, and Civil Rights: Understanding the Cherokee Freedmen Controversy. Cultural Anthropology, 29(3), 575-598. doi:https://doi.org/10.14506/ca29.3.07The article ‘Race, Sovereignty, and Civil Rights: Understanding the Cherokee Freedmen Controversy’ uses the ‘Cherokee Freedmen’ debate to study how discourse diminishes or empowers tribal authority, and observes the response of people in settler-colonial the context when the application of civil rights comes into confrontation with tribal rights, and an analysis of how settler colonialism can obscure racial power dynamics to weaken native tribal nationality and identity.Joni Hersch, J. B. (2015). Fifty Years Later: The Legacy Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964. (K. A. Couch, Ed.) Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 34(2), 424-456. Retrieved from https://law.vanderbilt.edu/phd/faculty/joni-hersch/2015_Hersch_and_Shinall_Legacy_of_Civil_Rights_Act_Journal_of_Policy_Analysis_and_Management.pdfIn the article entitled ‘Fifty Years Later: The Legacy Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964’, Joni Hersch (2015) evaluates the legacy of ‘the Civil Rights Act’ over 50 years, studying its scope, history, impact on employment, wages and social exclusion as a result of the Act’s five protection, and presented evidence that the ‘Civil Rights Act of 1964’ helped improved employment and wage results for women and Black Americans in the marketHarris, F. C. (2015). The Next Civil Rights Movement? Dissent, 34-39. Retrieved from https://franklinhslibrary.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/101640115/Black%20Lives%20Matter.pdfIn a case study entitled, ‘The Next Civil Rights Movement? The author discusses the merits of the 1960s movement that related to the political and civil rights that the black people were previously deprived of, but also points towards the racialized degradation black people continued to withstand, at the hands of the police, in context of the Black Lives Matter demonstrations, to discuss police reform policy in the civil rights framework.Policy FormationIntroductionAs the reconstruction era concluded in 1877, states in the south of the American republic introduced new laws restricting African American voting rights. After the Civil War, African Americans were granted citizenship through a series of legal achievements, including the Fifth Amendment of 1870, which allowed African Americans the right to vote and ended racial discrimination in the vote. Despite these protections, many southern states opposed racial equality and circumvented the law by mandating tests to prevent African Americans from registering, to prevent them from partaking in the election process. Due to this a policy reformation was needed. The election law was subsequently modified and re-established to ensure that anyone can vote with which, finally, African Americans obtained the right to vote. One of the primary goals for the stakeholders of the civil rights movement was to register Southern voters for African- Americans to gain political power there.Democratic ProcessesThe Fifth Amendment was passed in 1870 after the Civil War that allowed African Americans the right to vote. However many states and localities circumvented the law to prevent them by introducing difficult tests for African Americans to pass, to be able to register their votes. Rules such as civic tests, taxes, and the grandfather clause continued to create obstacles for black people to vote. In 1964, the ‘Civil Rights Act’ was approved, stating that everyone will have equal civil rights. President John F. Kennedy endorsed the law, and the subsequent presidents sustained the decision to support the change. The Senate finally approved the Act. In 1965, the ‘Voting Rights Act’ was endorsed by Martin Luther King Jr. who was linked to the ‘Civil Rights Act’ of 1964. . Therefore, the election law was modified and re-established to ensure that anyone can vote with which, finally, African Americans obtained the right to vote.StakeholdersThe prime stakeholders in the process were African Americans. Their long struggle for the right to vote for African Americans was part of a century-old effort to make sure that all citizens received equal rights under the Constitution of the United States, not just white landowners. In 1861, the general public living in the north used to be opposed to slave ownership, but those who dwelled in the south sought to uphold the status quo. Then began the civil war period amid the south and the north. As years passed, however, many arose to change their minds about Black citizens after the Harlem Renaissance, which is where the people shared the African-American experience for the first time. Systemic racial discrimination, however, continued until the mid-20th century such as in 1951, where there was a boycott of the buses. 40,000 blacks joined a bus boycott movement, and largely agreed to not use the bus until they changed the racial profiling systems in the busses until finally it was abolished. In 1964, the ‘Civil Rights Act’ was approved, stating that everyone will have equal civil rights and as a result of their mobilization, a year later the 1965 Voting Rights Act was passed.Final ThoughtsThe right to vote was a big step not only for the civil rights movement but also for democracy. It can be said without hesitation that the civil rights movement was a great success, and produced a substantial change in the society’s values. Today it is difficult to envision different sections for different persons and races on the bus or the metro. However, there are still many issues related to racial tolerance that continue to haunt the people. The activist movements for the freedom and participation of black people in American society saw a rise in demands of civil liberties that intertwined with voting rights.Program Factors and Program AccountabilityThere were a number of factors that worked together to make the civil rights and voting rights movement a success. Some of the factors in the historical context are discussed to understand how the movement thrived during the 1960-1970 period, carried to success by its stakeholders, and the effectiveness of the funding and strategies that were used and the impact of those strategies that helped the movement gain traction despite opposition from critics. Furthermore, issues surrounding voting rights in the cotemporary context are also monitored, highlighting some current issues to evaluate how they are holding up today and how it is relevant in the stakeholders’ lives up to this day.Stakeholders The main stakeholders of the civil rights movement and in particular the voting rights act of 1965 were the African American communities, who were facing racial discrimination as well as a systemic discrimination even after the Fifth Amendment. Despite protections offered by the Fifth Amendment, racial equality was still opposed by many southern states who circumvented the law by introducing different tests that served as a barrier to prevent Black citizens to register and take part in the election process. One of the primary goals of the civil rights movement was to register Southern voters for African- Americans to gain political power there. Systemic racial discrimination, however, continued until the mid-20th century such as in 1951, where there was a boycott of the buses.There was a separation between white passengers who sat in front seats of the bus and the black passengers who were made to sit in the back seats; front seats were kept segregated for the White American. 40,000 blacks joined a bus boycott movement, and largely agreed to not use the bus until they changed the racial profiling systems in the busses until finally it was abolished. The 1964 Civil Rights Act had provisions that barred segregation and discrimination in jobs, education, public facilities, and housing. An ‘Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’ was formed to ensure that hiring practices remained fair, and a ‘Federal Community Relations Service’ was established to aid local communities regarding issues related to civil rights. The ‘US Office of Education’ was authorized to deliver financial aid to public schools in communities that were still struggling with segregation. There were a coalition of labor unions, religious groups, and civil rights organizations that exerted pressure from the grassroots level to lobby support for the bills. It was finally passed on 11th June 1964 in Congress with votes of 73 against 27.Advocates The 1964 ‘Civil Rights Act’ was approved after years of activist lobbying that sought a comprehensive civil rights legislation where everyone will be guaranteed with equal civil rights. President Lyndon Baines, after the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, gave top priority to Bill’s passage. President John F. Kennedy originally endorsed the law while his successors sustained his decisions and supported the change. The Senate finally approved the Act. In 1965, the ‘Voting Rights Act’ was endorsed by Martin Luther King Jr. who was linked to the ‘Civil Rights Act’ of 1964. Civil rights workers underwent vicious murders and beatings for the passage of the ‘Civil rights Act’ that led to some black activists becoming radicalized, who became doubtful of the integrationist, nonviolent tactics and instead sought a more radical approach. Six hundred activists set out on a march on March 7, 1965, from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery, in an event that came to be known as “Bloody Sunday”.The activists organized a peaceful protest due to continued violations of African American civil rights, but state enforcers descended upon them in an unprovoked attack, leading to the outbreak of violence and many deaths. This convinced President Johnson at the time that additional civil rights legislation was required to address the situation (Berman, 2015). Malcolm X’s activism also left a lasting effect on the civil rights movement. His ideas had an influence in shaping and reinforcing the South’s tradition of self-reliance, which demonstrated itself in the movement.Critics The movement had its share of resistance. Despite the fact that President Kennedy had sent the bill to Congress in 1963 before the March, the Judiciary Committee had blocked the passage due to delay tactics used by some Southerner senators who held segregationist views, such as James Eastland, who was a Democrat from Mississippi. Due to these measures, there was still resistance even following Bill’s enactment. Another segregationist was George Wallace, a governor of Alabama, who was also a vocal critic of the movement and his campaigns involved heavy anti-integration rhetoric that related the movement to loss of traditional American values. This rhetoric later led to the rise of social conservatism in many parts of the US (Carter, 2000). Following the legislation, some venue that was public tried to convert themselves into private clubs rather than implement the new desegregation rules and let African Americans become members. This was subsequently declared illegal by the Supreme Court (John Hope Franklin, 2011).Impact The impact left by the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was one that still greatly affects the society today, despite recent controversies. The bill had made literacy tests, poll taxes and other practices to be illegal, some methods used to prevent southern black Americans from casting their votes. The US attorney general was authorized to ensure compliance by local registrars by dispatching federal officials, in case there were problems and to conduct supervision in districts where disfranchised African Americans had been more prominent. In the South, the patterns of political power were transformed by the voting rights Act (Risen, 2014). The results led to half a million African Americans to register themselves to vote by 1966 and four hundred Blacks had been elected to office by 1968. Many Southern Democrats began to leave the party as African Americans joined the Democrats. Some congressmen began to leave their old rhetoric behind and started campaigns to appeal to the black community for votes, for example, George Wallace (May, 2014). The Act not only expanded the scope of the federal civil rights laws of the time but completely transformed voter dynamics in local and state governments. The results and impact are indisputable that led to far less discrimination today in voting than what used to be 60 years ago. Racial degradation, however, did not end completely in society as even today black people continue to be a victim of racist behavior and bias. The Black Lives Matter demonstrations led to widespread criticism of police action and reform policies within the civil rights framework were discussed as a result (Harris, 2015).Monitoring The Act has become a part of America’s national lore. It provided meaningful legal remedies to minority citizens. The two Acts continued to play a part in many social justice movements that ensued in later years. There have been many studies evaluating social dynamics of racism today in order to monitor the performance and effect of the legislation and the movement today. One of the studies conducted in this regard used the hypothetical concept of master narrative to investigate ideological and historical assumptions regarding the Civil Rights Movement according to the interviewed youth in the urban community, the researcher presents four themes existing in the movement’s master narrative to demonstrate how ideologies of white supremacy are reinforced through these functions (Woodson, 2015).The research provides insights into how Master Narratives of the Civil Rights and Voter Rights movement shape perceptions of average black youth and shed lights into racial dynamics still present in society despite the success of the voter rights and civil rights movement in 1964-1965. Similar studies are useful for monitoring the results and implications of the movement and how they are still relevant today.Another important issue was the US Supreme Court’s verdict in the landmark Shelby County v. Holder case regarding two provisions of the Voting Rights Act. The provisions had to do with local governments and certain states to obtain a preclearance from the center if they required to making any changes to the voting practice or laws that were to be determined by their histories of discrimination in voting. The Court decided that the coverage formula in section 4b was unconstitutional because it left a burden on constitutional principles and equal sovereignty of the states, and was no longer responsive to current needs. As a result of the decision, some states implemented voter identification laws and became stricter in expunging voters that were not eligible for the vote according to the new conditions (Overton, 2013). The two studies point towards how the voter’s right act has performed throughout the years, and the contemporary challenges to the legislation faces along. Prevailing social attitudes are also monitored and compared to the time when the act was passed.Funding The movements that led to the enactment of the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act received funding from different quarters, state and non-state, at the time. In 1957 the ‘Southern Christian Leadership Conference’ was formed in an alliance of Church leaders that offered leadership assistance and training to complement local efforts in fighting segregation. They raised funds from Northern sources mostly, to support campaigns in the south. They adopted on violence as its primary method and central tenet in challenging racism. In 1962, the SNCC used funds from the ‘Voter Education Project’ in organizing voter registration in Mississippi Delta. A fierce opposition met their efforts. But it showed that organizations and alliances that had believed in racial equality and civil rights began to organize themselves and fund different campaigns that helped strengthen the movement at the grassroots levels, although the funding efforts could hardly be termed sufficient.From the opposing side, some state-funded organizations attempted to counter the civil rights movement by utilizing state funds to portray segregationist policies in a positive light. They used their own resources to collect information about activists, and legally harassed them, threatening their jobs or using other economic boycotts against them to suppress the movement.Strategies The core strategies used in the movement centered around the theme of nonviolence. Leaders of the Civil Rights movement such as Rev. Martin Luther King endorsed this method in favor of an armed guerilla uprising. The movement was inspired by the nonviolent teachings of the Mahatma Gandhi, the popular Indian leader. Millions of African Americans went out in the streets led by Martin Luther King to participate in peaceful protests, as well as economic boycotts and acts of civil disobedience, with such spirit that man began to term it as America’s second civil war. They also boycotted the buses where segregation was taking place. Students did not leave lunch stores until they were served. The 1963 March towards Washington had hundreds of thousands of demonstrators who demanded equal access to quality education, public facilities, decent housing and adequate employment for African Americans and was a major success. This is when Dr. Martin Luther King delivered his famous ‘I have a Dream’ speech. They not only led protests but challenged segregation by pursuing legislative reforms through courts, all of which contributed towards the movement. The struggle for equal rights still continue to this day and demands for accountability in racially motivated murders are increasing, that occurred during the Civil Rights Era. Institutions and individuals are still to be held accountable for any racially motivated deaths for victims who were struggling to obtain the right to vote (Johnson, 2015).Final ThoughtsThe right to vote was a big step not only for the civil rights movement but also for democracy. It can be said without hesitation that the civil rights movement was a great success, and produced a substantial change in the society’s values. Today it is difficult to envision different sections for different persons and races on the bus or the metro. However, there are still many issues related to racial tolerance that continue to haunt the people. The activist movements for the freedom and participation of black people in American society saw a rise in demands of civil liberties that intertwined with voting rightsProgram Outcomes and RecommendationsThe Voting Right Act which was signed into law by President Lyndon B, John in 1965, brought a lot of changes in American political area. The intended outcome of the program was to remove or overcome the barriers which existed at the State and local level that prevented the black community from practicing their rights to vote and be voted as well. As a result, the black community started to have representatives from both state and local assembly and even the Congress, they started to get employment, and the income of black neighborhood increased as several new opportunities started to become available. Though racial discrimination started to fade, it still affected attitudes that would not die down with a passing of a bill alone.Intended Outcome(s)The Voting Right Act which was signed into law by President Lyndon B, John in 1965, brought a lot of changes in American political area. The first aim of the program was to remove or overcome the barriers which existed at the State and local level that prevented the black community from practicing their rights to vote and be voted as well. According to Beyerlein (2016), before the signing of the act, the African Americans were not permitted to vote, and the Voting Right altered the political scenes since the African Americans started to be considered and involved in political rallies and events. In states like Mississippi, the number of blacks voters doubled and the over 72 blacks were elected to various political seats. In the 1980s, the job opportunities opened for many blacks and therefore, several African Americans were elected and appointed in the public offices across the northern states and other forty states in the United States. It is, therefore, evident that Voting Rights Act made the end of economic inequality, created employment opportunity for many blacks across the nation, African Americans registered to vote and several of them elected to various political positions as well.Actual Outcome(s)The actual outcomes of Voting Rights Act are several African Americans were elected to the public office, and therefore, the black community started to have representatives from both state and local assembly and even the Congress. This improves the bargaining power of the African Americans and hence employment opportunities and even the fund too low-income earners and other poor black communities started to receive fund payment transfer to support their lives. As stated by an economist, Gavin Wright, the immediate outcome of the Voting Right Act, was the change of activities towards the black community. Even though African Americans started to win various public offices, the great achievement was white politicians started wooing influential members of the black community (Lopez, 2015).The presence of African Americans started to be felt in a courthouse in statehouses where lobbying for political support was being done. The African Americans started to get employment, an income of black neighborhood increases and several opportunities started to be available. According to Lopez (2015), even the remote areas of Florida and other states where black community lived are receiving state payment transfer to support various families. It is, therefore, evident that Voting Rights Act program changed the political landscape in American and brought a lot of economic and social gains to the public. And therefore, the Voting Rights Act is viewed by a majority of Americans as one of the most far-reaching sections of right civil legislation in the United States history.MatchIt is evident that the intended and actual outcome of the Voting Rights Acts to benefit the African American in the society. As stated by Barrett (2013), the benefit of Voting Right Acts was the permission of the black community to register as voters, vote and be elected to a public office. This, therefore, increased the number of African Americans participating in political as well public participation which are beneficial to the black community. However, the unintended consequences of Voting Rights Act are that the Act enfranchised millions of African Americans in the society. It also opened an opportunity for African Americans power brokers to collaborate with conservatives to draw the political map where districts for African Americans and whites were drawn, and this started to divide Americans further along the race (Barrett, 2013).Despite the achievement of the right to vote, the racial discrimination against the black community continued to frustrate the achievement made. As stated by Barrett (2013), blacks were riding on the back of the bus and eat at only black restaurants, and therefore, the programs made several African Americans suffer. According to US Commission for Civil Rights, the enactment of Voting Rights Acts made it difficult for African Americans to vote as well since the state government introduced taxes and literacy test before an individual was allowed to vote. It made it difficult for black voters to vote since a majority of black voters could not pass the literacy test.RecommendationsAfrican Americans that were registered as voters suddenly increased from 7% in 1964 to 67% just five years after the Voting Rights Act was signed, despite the fact that implementation even after signing the act was weak. A huge voter turnout in the first elections after the act was witnessed even in the South. Despite its success, today there is still a need to recommend policy reforms that ensure that voting rights remain protected and discrepancies are removed. Multi-faceted process improvements are needed from education, to policy reform to introducing new measures with appropriate funding strategies devised to channel funds into the program to lead it towards success. A performance measurement and monitoring program to evaluate the efficacy of policy reforms will go along with it to provide further recommendations to improve the process.EvaluationResearch has established that Voting Right Acts brought several changes to the American political scene. The number of African American registered as voters’ increases and several African American were elected to power immediately after the enactment of the law. It is, therefore, evident that the Voting Rights Act objective of getting power was achieved. Several studies have also indicated that the enactment of the Voting Rights Act ends the economic inequality against the African American. It is also established that the number of African Americans registered as voters suddenly increased from 7% in 1964 to 67% just five years after the Voting Rights Act was signed to law by President Lyndon B. John (Barrett, 2013)It shows a significant shift in American politics, and therefore, it brought political players together regardless of the race, or ethnicity because the number became essential in the political competition which African Americans possess. Even though the implementation of the Voting Right Acts by the state and the federal government was weak, the voter turnout across the Southern States was high which threatened the status quo of in several states.Process ImprovementsIt is recommended to make voting mandatory across the United States to make sure that every eligible voter is registered and participate in the election process as well. This will make sure that all African Americans and other Americans participate in the election process. It is also recommended to build the capacity of young African Americans through training and workshops so that they can be active and involve in the various political platform. The voting should also be streamlined, and bottlenecks which hindered the process of voting such as literacy test are removed to make sure that every citizen participates in the voting process. However, it is also necessary to enact a bill which can make sure that constant workshops and training fully support the Voting Rights Act. The educational training and other activities which can provide improvement should be done continuously to allow the people to be familiar with the process not only during electioneering.Funding StrategiesThe Voting Rights Acts can be funded using various strategies such as political parties funding, state and federal government funding of various activities which can promote Voting Rights Act. The funding strategies recommended for this program so successful and also improve its effectiveness are through non-actors, parties, civic organizations, and federal government as well. The civil organizations and other non-actors can directly fund activities which empower the populations on the right to vote and also mobilize the black community to participate in the voting process. The funds can be obtained through a partnership with donors, and corporations willing to work together to empower the populace on matters of voting. It is also recommended for the federal government to fund various political activities which can increase the voter turnout and registration of voters. The federal government should fund education training seminars and other workshops with objectives to empower the public. This will improve the effectiveness of the program and therefore, it shall benefit the general public through increased public participation.It is also recommended to seeking funding from the state government to help in addressing issues which can make the program effective. Within the State budget, the assembly should have a separate budget or funds for voting education, and mobilization (M. Holzer, 2016). This can be achieved by mobilizing assembly and the Congress to have a special fund towards Voting Rights Act to facilitate activities which can ensure that black community turns up in large numbers to participate in the political process of the country.The political parties’ Democrat and Republic should also fund various activities which can ensure that Voting Rights Act is properly implemented and become effective. This is because the political parties are critical stakeholders in the program and its improvement benefits the political and therefore, it should fund education programs and mobilization towards voter registration and voting.MeasurementThe effectiveness of the recommended made shall be measured based on many factors such as the number of African American registered to vote, the total vote turnout from districts classified as African American bases or districts, and the number of African American running and getting elected to public offices. The number of the black community joining various political debates and voting in the election automatically translate that the recommendation are working and therefore, should be continued. It is also appropriate to conduct studies, and survey to analyze the understanding of the society on issues related to voting or registration as a voter so that it can establish whether there is an impact of finances being channeled towards Voting Right Acts to make sure that people are properly educated and participate in the political arena.ConclusionThe outcome of Voting Rights Acts changed the political landscape and brought many political players that changed the Americans political fields to date. It is evident that millions of African Americans have registered as voters, millions are turning up to vote, and there are several who have been elected to various public offices across the country. The right to vote was a big step not only for the civil rights movement but also for democracy. It can be said without hesitation that the civil rights movement was a great success, and produced a substantial change in the society’s values. Today it is difficult to envision different sections for different persons and races on the bus or the metro. However, there are still many issues related to racial tolerance that continue to haunt the people. The activist movements for the freedom and participation of black people in American society saw a rise in demands of civil liberties that intertwined with voting rights.It is also appropriate to conclude that the Voting Rights Act created employment opportunities for African Americans and most importantly, several white politicians started to work closely with African Americans political players in various political contents. It is, therefore, recommended to mobilize and receive funds from state and federal government, the political parties and non-actors to fund various activities which can improve participation of the black community in politics through voting and registration to vote as well so that the effectiveness of the program can be noticed and achieved as well.ReferencesBarrett, P. M. (2013). The Unintended Consequences of the Voting Rights Act. Journal American Political and History, 2-15.Berman, A. (2015). Give Us the Ballot: The Modern Struggle for Voting Rights in America . New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Beyerlein, K. (2016). Black Voting During the Civil Rights Movement: A Micro-Level Analysis. Kenneth T. Andrews, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 82(12), 2-45.Carter, D. T. (2000). The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.Harris, F. C. (2015). The Next Civil Rights Movement? Dissent, 34-39. Retrieved from https://franklinhslibrary.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/101640115/Black%20Lives%20Matter.pdfHayter, J. M. (2012). To End Divisions: Reflections On The Civil Rights. Richmond Journal Of Law And The Public Interest [Vol. XVIII:iv, 12(7), 2-38.John Hope Franklin, E. B. (2011). From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (9th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Johnson, P. C. (2015). Voting Rights And Civil Rights Era Cold Cases: Section Five And The Five Cities Project’. Touro Law Journal Of Race, Gender, & Ethnicity & Berkeley Journal Of African-American Law & Policy, 16(2), 377-390. doi:http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15779/Z38PK8PJoni Hersch, J. B. (2015). Fifty Years Later: The Legacy Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964. (K. A. Couch, Ed.) Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 34(2), 424-456. Retrieved from https://law.vanderbilt.edu/phd/faculty/joni-hersch/2015_Hersch_and_Shinall_Legacy_of_Civil_Rights_Act_Journal_of_Policy_Analysis_and_Management.pdfLopez, G. (2015). How the Voting Rights Act transformed black voting rights in the South, in one chart. Journal of Science and Politics, 2-35.M. Holzer, R. S. (2016). Public Administration: An Introduction (2ns ed.). New York: Routledge.May, G. (2014). Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy . Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Overton, S. (2013). Voting Rights Disclosure. Harvard Law Review Forum, 127(19), 19-31. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2365620Risen, C. (2014). The Bill of the Century: The Epic Battle for the Civil Rights Act. New York: Bloomsbury Press.Woodson, A. N. (2015). “There Ain’t No White People Here”: Master Narratives of the Civil Rights Movement in the Stories of Urban Youth. Urban Education, 1-28. doi:10.1177/0042085915602543

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