Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Published: 2021-07-07 00:09:06
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In this research I am going to start discussing the history and development of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Then next I will explain the various Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) disorders that includes depression and panic disorders (Dysvik, Kvaløy & Furnes, 2012). Finally, I will discuss the evidence based on the existence for this specific psychological medical care and its model.History and Development of CBTCognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) rose from Behavioural Therapy (BT) and was discovered by a psychologist Dr. Aaron T. Beck in 1960s at University of Pennsylvania. Its invention was based on how subjects felt about the world, the surrounding (nature) and themselves. To understand the development and History of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) I will focus on its origin than can be drawn from Behavioural and Cognitive principals (Dysvik, Kvaløy & Furnes, 2012).Behavioural method has been used in medical curing of patients with mental problems since the 19th century. Behaviour involves on what we do as significant in keeping psychological situations. Behavioural principle is based on the thoughts that characters for people can actually be evaluated, developed and altered. It further states that our reactions to the nature pictures and images determines the characters that we possess (Galeazzi & Meazzini, 2004).The desire for efficient short term therapy in relation to depression and panic disorder concurred with the starting up of behavioural study on how individuals should gain knowledge and skills on how to act and respond emotionally to this disorders. As result of problem the psychoanalysis therapy that existed before was disputed and gave rose to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) that averts that behaviour can have a great effect on various feelings and thoughts (Galeazzi & Meazzini, 2004).Cognitive method is another principle that gave rose to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Cognition refers to psychological of perception, learning and reasoning. Through this definition it clearly shows that individual’s emotions and responses is influenced by cognition (Dysvik, Kvaløy & Furnes, 2012). Therefore, a person’s aroused suffering is due to the feelings and thoughts about an occurring event instead of the actual occurring event.During the 1950s and 1960s Aaron T. Beck the founder of CBT realised that his patients had inner negotiations that went through their mind when he was conducting his research (Galeazzi & Meazzini, 2004). He found out that his subjects were talking to themselves though they didn’t reveal to him fully about this thoughts. For instance, an individual might thought to themselves, “The lecture knows that I am the poor performer in his class; what might he be thinking about me?” Through these thoughts he/or she starts to feel anxious. According to the illustration above it explains the core of cognitive principle in that various cognitions give rise to different thoughts.In the time principle, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) considers that psychological disorders are in a particular continuum but not in various proportion completely (Galeazzi & Meazzini, 2004). Therefore psychological problems should be seen as arising from hyperbolized situations of normal procedures instead of diseased states that are very much more different from the normal processes. In relation to this principle is that mental problems can happen to anyone instead of eccentric peculiarity and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) applies therapist same to patients (Dysvik, Kvaløy & Furnes, 2012).The “here” and “now” principle focuses on what can be done to improve on the patient’s current rather than focusing on the causes of suffering and its signs. Behavioural Therapy (BT) focused more on tackling the symptoms of anxiety and depression but later on psychoanalysts proposed that treating signs directly for the patients with mental problems had a positive improvement and therefore their mental state.Generally, Aaron T. Beck had a clear understanding of the significant of the connection between thoughts and feelings and came up with the term “Automatic thoughts in Cognitive Therapy” to discuss the different emotional ideas that comes to individual’s brains or minds. He found that even people weren’t informed of these feelings, they can study them and be able to report them verbally.Through his research he discovered that people who were angered possessed poor feelings that seemed to be unimaginable, through discovering these thoughts a sustainable and positive effects can be found. To be precise Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is of importance to persons as it comes out of these automatic thoughts and experiments them working towards improving the patient’s medical condition.In combining the principles behavioural treatment were of importance in treating neuroticism personality traits. Neuroticism people are those who those individuals who see pessimistic despite they are facing challenges. Neuroticism entails on an individual’s emotion stability and general regulation of temper. Hence behavioural therapies acted as a treatment to people with neurotic disorders (Öst, 2008). Slowly after the emergence of cognitive treatment came in, psychiatrist started to combine them together to ensure issues such as panic disorder or anxiety were treated successfully. Even though all these methods of feelings and thoughts has various stressing ideas, both of them are interested in what is happening to the individual here and now. The Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is bothered with what is taking place with the patient or subject at that particular moment (Galeazzi & Meazzini, 2004).Studies show that CBT has been helpful in a number of ways. Some of its importance includes regulating emotions; quite a number of health conditions involves very deep and unavoidable mental feelings. Through this type of treatment it has helped the subjects to be in control of these thoughts. Another advantage of these treatment is that it has assisted the subjects to get well on with the situation. Bereavement can cause a very intense psychology challenges, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy has been importance to this individuals as it has helped to overcome the situation.CBT has helped people to solve personal disputes or grudges amongst them. One of the main principals of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is to improve on the means of communication (Steven D., 2011). Well and improved means of communication helps to solve personal and various types of relationships such as marriages, friendship and that of families. It has helped in treatment of touchable illness – CBT can help people to take care of nuisance and physical psychology difficulties (Mavrides & Nemeroff, 2013).Through the knowledge and skills obtained in this treatment the individuals who are suffering from this mental disorders can help prevent some of the signs and symptoms associated with their situations (Öst, 2008). Also this therapy has helped people who unable to use drugs as prescribed by the psychologist. Finally, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is of assistance with people suffering of eating disorders, those who are phobias and those with chronic fatigue disorders.Though there are many disorders that are exist such as anger but depression and panic disorder are the main challenges addressed by Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) model as they are two faces of one disorder (Cuijpers et al., 2015). Depression refers to a mental state that is characterized by pessimistic sense of inadequacy and despondent lack of activity (Galeazzi & Meazzini, 2004). Beck describes that people who are suffering in depression have negative attitudes towards themselves, to the world and about featuring what will happen in the future. A person depressed views that he is worthless, stupid, and unlovable and a total failure. When he looks at world he or she sees life is a periodical experiments and nothing of significance comes to existence (Galeazzi & Meazzini, 2004). A subject who is suffering in depression sees negatively to the future in that nothing he does in his life will make an impact in the future as result of this thinking it gives a stoppage of the mental in cognitive and behavioural indication.Depression treatmentCBT, is a major type of dialogue treatment that works very well in treatment of people suffering with depression (Steven D., 2011). It works very efficiently when the level of depression for the person is small or is in control. Studies show that it can also treat some extreme cases when the psychologist has more expertise and knowledge in the area. Research also proves that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) can be more effective when the therapist combines it with drugs (Steven D., 2011).To treat a person who is depressed requires to educate them first and making them to be aware that it is not their fault maybe to suffering with cancer or being blind as a result of not seeing what is surrounding them (Cuijpers et al., 2015). The patients sees that the problems that they are encountering are natural due to failure in looking for solutions to the problems they are encountering. The initial step to cognitive – behavioural treatment (psychotherapy) is to examine their emotions and thoughts on how somebody’s thinking about oneself and their considerations (Steven D., 2011).Developing an understanding your thinking ways, principles of the thinking ways and taking various means to alter somebody’s thinking ways and conditions are the major constitutes of treatment of person who is suffering with depression. Beck recommends that it is important that to change our thoughts and feelings in order to get what we want to be like (Cuijpers et al., 2015).Also for a success treatment psychotherapy with clients suffering with depression they should devote themselves and be committed to treatment rules for them to gain their normal mental states. Individuals should be proud to themselves for the steps that they have taken starting from exploring answers in the internet and making a date with the psychologist for guidance and counselling (Cuijpers et al., 2015).Anxiety TreatmentThe second disorder that is tackled by the psychotherapy treatment is anxiety or panic disorder (Mavrides & Nemeroff, 2013). Anxiety refers relatively state of persistent worry and nervousness that occurs in various types of mental disorders that comes with a state of panic. To be precise it refers to the perception of high danger of undesirable consequence. When a person’s in panic there is frequent misinterpretation of various ideas (Steven D., 2011).For a health anxiety some people tend to misinterpret some type of illness that the disease they are suffering from may eventually lead to death in them. Other types of anxiety includes social anxiety disorder that involves people seeing as stupid and worthless among others. Finally anxiety or state of panic disorder is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) that comes as a result of thoughts of trying to stop danger to oneself or to other individuals.Anybody who is suffering from this state of panic are more often harboured with too much worry that regulates on how their day runs (Steven D., 2011). Always they find challenges in conducting their usual daily work as they cannot concentrate. People who in distress from the above are likely to acquire assistance from the therapist. By doing this it will help them gain their normal situations and stop living in panic. In absence of treatment people can feel hopelessness and distressed (Cuijpers et al., 2015).The Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) also known as psychotherapy is one of the proved and recommended treatment of panic disorder. Treatment related to psychotherapy will assist those who are obsessive with anxiety as it changes their thoughts and feelings (Steven D., 2011). It also recommends that they be strong throughout the situation and come out strong out of it.To overcome anxiety the therapists teaches the patients on the causes and symptoms of being the victims of anxiety. Teaching goes on up to how to control the situation of panic and come out very strong (Mavrides & Nemeroff, 2013). One of the major symptoms that comes to a patient that is in anxiety is that they feel out of control and see that death is approaching them and never will they again to manage their body (Cuijpers et al., 2015). Generally a good number of people tend to avoid any other circumstances that cause another panic after the original one hence becoming one the situations that oneself carries to protect themselves.Individuals who are suffering from panic disorder are advised to seek a psychiatrist as soon as possible and get advised on how to cope up with the situation. By doing this they will get control over their situation and not allowing anxiety to take part of their life (Steven D., 2011).Evidence on Psychological therapyIn this section it involves the study on what is the effectiveness of this model and what makes it psychotherapy theory as an actual model for treating patients with mental problems. Studies and research have shown that psychotherapy is supported as a treatment of psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety among adults. Convergence behavioural treatment has gained its ability and believability due to various professional campaigns and political forces such as managed health care and evolutions in biological psychopathology (Phillips, 2003).Another reliable source supporting psychotherapy treatment is UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) which is a body that is managed by the government that helps in conducting research on efficacy of various treatments and giving a detailed report about particular treatments that are supposed to be incorporated to National Health Service (NHS). Several reports from this agency has shown that cognitive behavioural treatment is a major medical cure for many mental related problems is well achieved (Phillips, 2003).To ensure the effectiveness and more efficient in psychotherapy treatment use of other medical treatment drugs such pharmacology makes it one of the highly qualified methods in taking care of patients with mental problems. In addition the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), an important agency dealing with finance for psychological therapy analysis, has adjudicated to use statistical analysis approach in the pharmaceutical research to do an analysis psychological therapy, with the use of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (Bisson et al., 2008). Through these findings it shows that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is psychotherapy with most concrete and broad evidence on its efficiency and effectualness (Phillips, 2003).Evidence on psychological therapy modelTruly speaking it will be a false belief to believe that by showing that the effectiveness of the treatment gives a clear evidence that theory exists (Quilty, McBride & Bagby, 2008). By doing this we will be lying to our self and therefore the efficiency of psychotherapy as a cure doesn’t show clearly that psychological therapy model is true. But according to Beck the founder of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) gives a detailed information on the empirical equality on the evidence of the psychological therapy model (Quilty, McBride & Bagby, 2008).He gives a conclusion that despite the available resources that show the negative outcome in depression there is evidence that high increase in negative thoughts and feelings about an individual, the world and the future (Bisson et al., 2008). Through his psychoanalysis he found out that particular thinking about failure and hopelessness especially those individuals who suffer from panic disorder. Also there is evidence from the cognitive principles can be found untruthful in some tests that shows that with depressed individuals there is flashback of negative results enhanced negative opinions (Quilty, McBride & Bagby, 2008).In conclusion, the origin and development of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) was founded by Aaron T. Beck. It rose as a result of Behavioural Therapy (BT) that existed in the early 19th century. The psychological therapy is explained in various principles including the behavioural principle and cognitive principle (Bisson et al., 2008). The most disorders that the psychological therapy addresses includes the depression and panic (anxiety) disorders and how it enhances their treatment (Quilty, McBride & Bagby, 2008). Also there is evidence that the psychological therapy and its model exists.ReferencesDysvik, E., Kvaløy, J., & Furnes, B. (2012). Evaluating physical functioning as part of a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approach in treatment of people suffering from chronic pain. Journal of Clinical Nursing, no-no. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.04040.xGaleazzi, A. & Meazzini, P. (2004). Mind and Behavior. Giunti Editore.Öst, L. G. (2008). Efficacy of the third wave of behavioural therapies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy, 46, 295-321.Steven D., H. (2011). Cognitive and behaviour therapy in the treatment and prevention of depression. Depression and Anxiety, 28(4), 263-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20797Cuijpers, P., Cristea, I., Ebert, D., Koot, H., Auerbach, R., Bruffaerts, R., & Kessler, R. (2015). PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION IN COLLEGE STUDENTS: A METAANALYSIS. Depression and Anxiety, 33(5), 400-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22461Mavrides, N., & Nemeroff, C. (2013). TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 328-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22051Quilty, L., McBride, C., & Bagby, R. (2008). Evidence for the cognitive mediational model of cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. Psychological Medicine, 38(11), 1531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0033291708003772Phillips AS. A meta-analysis of treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Manhattan, Kansas: Kansas State University; 2003.Bisson J, Andrew M. Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008.

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