HIV and AIDs Essay

Published: 2021-07-06 06:22:47
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The advancement in the technology and the field of medicine have to increase in the development in the area of medicine and prevention of deadly diseases. One of the most deadly diseases which impact the people globally is HIV/AIDs. Different countries are opting for strategies to improve the health of people and reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS cases. Two of the developing countries India and China are working hard to battle HIV/AIDS. According to a study by the World Bank, there 2.40 million people in India who have HIV/AIDS and 83% of them are between the age of 15 years to 49 years (“HIV/AIDS in India”). Two of the primary sources of this increase is the unprotected sex and use of injections for drugs. Unprotected sex, homosexual sex, injection use for drugs, low status of women, and stigmatization of the diseases are the risk factors for high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. However, on the other hand, China being the rapidly developing nation is also facing HIV/AIDS issues. According to 2012 estimates of Chinese state media, 68,802 cases of HIV/AIDS were reported in the year 2012 by October (Park). The government is taking several steps to reduce the instances of HIV/AIDS and improves the lives of the people with HIV/AIDS.The government of India has responded efficiently to the first case of HIV/AIDS case and established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) since 1986 (“HIV/AIDS in India”). In the year 1991, the focus of this program was to provide safe blood, raising awareness among general public and high-risk population and improved surveillance. In the second phase of the program which was from the year 1998 to the year 2006, the program expanded at the same level with more education and involvement of NGOs. In the third phase of the program, the intervention programs were increased, and partnership of the civil society was improved. In the third phase, several workshops were conducted with civil society members, experts from public health, and other departments such as education and others.On the other hand, the Chinese government has also stepped in for HIV/AIDS case, and one of the leading examples is the ban lift in the year 2010 for the HIV/AIDS foreign to visit the china. Also, China has even started antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS and number of patients receiving the treatment has increased over the past few years. The Chinese government has also formed a policy where the motto of the policy was “Four Frees, One Care” for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The policy is aimed to provide free blood tests, free educational facilities for Orphan AIDS patients, free consultation and screening tests and free antiretroviral therapy for pregnant women (Park).In India, there are several non-governmental and community-based organizations which are working to cater the issues related to HIV/AIDS at community, regional and national level. These organizations work on raising awareness among general population, high-risk groups and people living with HIV as well as Orphan children with HIV. These organization are working towards the general taboo among community related to HIV and provide education programs to tackle the stigma related to HIV. As HIV/AIDS is a global concern so there are several donor agencies which provide funding to the developing countries with high percentage of HIV cases. The donor agencies providing funding to India to tackle HIV/AIDS issue in the country are United Nations (UN) partners and other bilateral agencies. For example, World Bank has funded the NACP in the third phase. Other charity based organization are also working for AIDS such as Bill and Malinda Gate Foundation’s Avahan program, Clinton Health Access Initiative and UNAID, UNICEF and others (“HIV/AIDS in India”). However, there are certain challenges which are hinder the country to control the cases of HIV/AIDS such as institutional capacities of the country at managerial and structural level. Societal stigmatization related to HIV/AIDS can influence the programs implemented by the government as these taboos hinder the people to acquire treatments and consultation for AIDS. The targeted population would be difficult to attain as there are population which is neglected for consultation because of discrimination and stigmatization such as sex workers, drug users, and men having sex with other men. Because of this, country is not able to reach to the people who are more at risk and also providing safe sex awareness for men having sex with men.To conclude, HIV/AIDS is one of the major health concern and is pandemic because it is prevalent both in developed and developing countries. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is rapidly increasing in China and India and both the countries have reforming their policies and designing intervention programs to promote the treatment and prevention programs within their respective countries. The government of both countries have been actively working to reduce the cases and provide efficient health services to the HIV/AIDS patietns and also raising awareness about the issue in general population. However, there are several institutional and societal issues which are hampering the implementation of those programs.The advancement in the technology and the field of medicine have to increase in the development in the area of medicine and prevention of deadly diseases. One of the most deadly diseases which impact the people globally is HIV/AIDs. Different countries are opting for strategies to improve the health of people and reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS cases. Two of the developing countries India and China are working hard to battle HIV/AIDS. According to a study by the World Bank, there 2.40 million people in India who have HIV/AIDS and 83% of them are between the age of 15 years to 49 years (“HIV/AIDS in India”). Two of the primary sources of this increase is the unprotected sex and use of injections for drugs. Unprotected sex, homosexual sex, injection use for drugs, low status of women, and stigmatization of the diseases are the risk factors for high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. However, on the other hand, China being the rapidly developing nation is also facing HIV/AIDS issues. According to 2012 estimates of Chinese state media, 68,802 cases of HIV/AIDS were reported in the year 2012 by October (Park). The government is taking several steps to reduce the instances of HIV/AIDS and improves the lives of the people with HIV/AIDS.The government of India has responded efficiently to the first case of HIV/AIDS case and established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) since 1986 (“HIV/AIDS in India”). In the year 1991, the focus of this program was to provide safe blood, raising awareness among general public and high-risk population and improved surveillance. In the second phase of the program which was from the year 1998 to the year 2006, the program expanded at the same level with more education and involvement of NGOs. In the third phase of the program, the intervention programs were increased, and partnership of the civil society was improved. In the third phase, several workshops were conducted with civil society members, experts from public health, and other departments such as education and others.On the other hand, the Chinese government has also stepped in for HIV/AIDS case, and one of the leading examples is the ban lift in the year 2010 for the HIV/AIDS foreign to visit the china. Also, China has even started antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS and number of patients receiving the treatment has increased over the past few years. The Chinese government has also formed a policy where the motto of the policy was “Four Frees, One Care” for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The policy is aimed to provide free blood tests, free educational facilities for Orphan AIDS patients, free consultation and screening tests and free antiretroviral therapy for pregnant women (Park).In India, there are several non-governmental and community-based organizations which are working to cater the issues related to HIV/AIDS at community, regional and national level. These organizations work on raising awareness among general population, high-risk groups and people living with HIV as well as Orphan children with HIV. These organization are working towards the general taboo among community related to HIV and provide education programs to tackle the stigma related to HIV. As HIV/AIDS is a global concern so there are several donor agencies which provide funding to the developing countries with high percentage of HIV cases. The donor agencies providing funding to India to tackle HIV/AIDS issue in the country are United Nations (UN) partners and other bilateral agencies. For example, World Bank has funded the NACP in the third phase. Other charity based organization are also working for AIDS such as Bill and Malinda Gate Foundation’s Avahan program, Clinton Health Access Initiative and UNAID, UNICEF and others (“HIV/AIDS in India”). However, there are certain challenges which are hinder the country to control the cases of HIV/AIDS such as institutional capacities of the country at managerial and structural level. Societal stigmatization related to HIV/AIDS can influence the programs implemented by the government as these taboos hinder the people to acquire treatments and consultation for AIDS. The targeted population would be difficult to attain as there are population which is neglected for consultation because of discrimination and stigmatization such as sex workers, drug users, and men having sex with other men. Because of this, country is not able to reach to the people who are more at risk and also providing safe sex awareness for men having sex with men.To conclude, HIV/AIDS is one of the major health concern and is pandemic because it is prevalent both in developed and developing countries. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is rapidly increasing in China and India and both the countries have reforming their policies and designing intervention programs to promote the treatment and prevention programs within their respective countries. The government of both countries have been actively working to reduce the cases and provide efficient health services to the HIV/AIDS patietns and also raising awareness about the issue in general population. However, there are several institutional and societal issues which are hampering the implementation of those programs.Anorexia Nervosa is one of the psychiatric illness related to eating most common in females (1).The mother of Annette, the client, started to observe changes in her behavior regarding eating when she was no longer taking the breakfasts, eating on time, therefore, she was clinically assessed because anorexia nervosa patients also save themselves and lead to weight loss (2). From a cognitive behavioral therapy perspective, cognitive behavioral therapy is a treatment for the cases of anorexia nervosa patients (3). Cognitive behavioral therapy techniques are aimed at reducing the maladaptive thought and presumption of the clients (4). Annette told that her change in behavior is because her image of being fat is disturbing her and her aim of becoming a cheerleader is not going to work until she has lost the weight so, anorectic systems are also related to a physical presentation of a person (2). Body image is a complex phenomenon and has several ideal setups, and these images are constructed interpersonally with friends and cultural expectations (5), and as a result, Annette has been trying to look slim and starve herself. There is a lot of emphasis on body image in a western society where fat people have issues with fitting in the culture, and because of that image, Annette was starving herself to fit in the body image to fit in real image of cool and stylish (5). Self-perception is the way in which a person internalises the physical appearance as mental appearance, and in the case of the client, she thinks her physical image is not really the real portray of herself (5). The people with anorexia tend to isolate themselves and focus on losing weight with the concept that losing weight will decrease their distress and being slim with social acceptance (6). Annette mother tried to motivate her to involve in social conditions by understanding her situation as for anorexics the attention and support from the parents become a positive reinforcement (6). According to cognitive theory, aberrant thinking can result in inexorably and predictably as Annette was thinking that being thin would give her a place in the street dancers group and she would ultimately have a boyfriend (6). According to Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), women who have eating disorders such anorexia nervosa perceive that their body size more massive and therefore have negative evaluation of their look as Annette thinks that being overweight she is not attractive and thus cannot approach boys and losing weight would give her fame (5).Psychodynamic therapy is also essential to understand the underlying behaviours and desires which lead to a behaviour such as the desire of Annette to become slim in one way or the other (7). Psychodynamic therapy provides a more in-depth understanding of the development, interactions with other people, physical state and mental conflict which an individual goes through (7). Psychodynamic therapy works on the symptoms and relationship patterns of those individuals with other people, and those who have anorexia tend to view depending on someone as a sign of weakness (8). When the primary focus is on the losing weight or maintains the body image, then the concept is self-sufficient as Annette thinks that her mother is trying to control her life and she said this during her session with school psychologist (8). She views that if her mother stops managing her life and let her do whatever she wants to then it will be better for both of them, and people who have anorexia tend to believe that their primary aim is essential and other relations are secondary (9). The primary purpose of psychodynamic therapy is to understand how individual’s context plays a role in understanding his relationships and functioning (10). To realise one’s behaviour in the context of person’s behaviour functioning of human nature and how the actions disturb the social life of the individual and the outlook to the life (10). The way Annette’s life was troubled and how her relationships with other people were unhealthy shows that her behaviour and her unconscious desires were impacting the socialisation and rigid limitation of food can affect the health (7). People tend to have difficulties in getting into therapies and consider that their behaviour is not an issue and because of this, they are lack maintaining their relationship with other people (11). For example, Annette has her ultimate aim to attain the attention she needs, therefore, she has maintained a world isolated inside herself and anything that is being said to her even for her benefits, so she think every other person is controlling her and this is disturbing her behavior (11). The psychodynamic context therapy focuses on the individuals just the way her therapy session was solely focused on her and her fantasies and disturbances connected to her eating behaviour (12). Because of lack of interaction with her mother, she was not able to try out how she can lose weight like intentional vomiting, and that void is not filled by communication (12).Both of the frameworks chosen to explain Annette’s health are used widely to describe eating disorders, and in both therapies, there are several steps to analyse the situation of the patients or the clients (13). For example, in the initial phase of psychodynamic therapy process patient tend to be defensive, detached and exhaustive as it was observed in the case of Annette when she thought she does not need therapy session and was reluctant to provide any information (11). In anorexia, the symptoms are based on over-expectations and over-valued idea about one’s personal self, body shape and weight (2). The second phase of the treatment is to understand cognitive-behavioral therapy of the person instead of letting them know that their behavior is not right and in the case of Annette if the psychologist would have directly criticized her then it would have led to more negativity (14). Cognitive behavioral therapy is proven to work for the patients with eating disorders and help in developing and maintaining the relationship with the client (13). Anorexia patients need the help of the therapists to build a diet which is helpful for the daily dietary intake (15). Cognitive behavioral therapy is both cognitive and behavioral therapy as it undertakes both emotional and behavioral concerns such the treatment provided by psychologist to Annette was comprised of discussion about what she thinks, her behaviors, her relations with her mother and other aspects which are impacting her behavior (16). Whereas the therapy of psychodynamic is emotion based and cognition understands the underlying and asking question which make the patient think about the concern rationally (11). Psychodynamic approach is focused on the factors which contributing to the life of the patients and their risky behaviors as in the case of current patient her peers, her understanding that being slim would get her in to street dancer groups and the factors which are promoting the anxious behavior in her (17).The cognitive behavior therapy is essential as it provides the understanding to the patient of their behavior and also to the therapist that their work has been implemented in betterment of their client as the therapy can be recommended the Annette as she been thinking about fitting into the society (3). Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the leading evidence-based treatment for eating-related disorder such as anorexia and it stressed upon the importance of thought and actions at the same time as in the client’s case thoughts of being slim and fitting in the society were leading to her less eating, intentional vomiting and misinterpreting her mother’s behavior as control (18). There are three phases to the therapy, and the first one is behavioral phase and in this phase psychologist will work with the patient to manage the feelings and actions which are developed in a reaction as Annette and her psychologist have a discussion about her feeling to attract boys, be a part of cheerleaders and how her mother’s behavior was discussed (18). The second phase is cognitive restructuring phase where the therapist tries to trigger the patient about their behaviour and then probe them in a way that is challenging to their logic and intellect such as asking about the importance of losing weight and how it will impact the life (11). During this phase, psychologist tends to address the concerns related to body image, peer pressure, socialisation and relationship with the patient (2). The third phase of this therapy is to help the individual maintain the behaviour and have a positive outlook to the idea that things will work best even when they do not starve themselves (18). Many people with anorexia nervosa have difficulties in attaining any kind of help and especially when the support requires putting the fear of body imaging in front of a person who is not known to you, and these people are not willing to change their behaviour (19). The response of Annette was similar where she thinks that her mother should let her do whatever she is doing and should not interfere in her life as she is grown up and she was in denial that this could put her life at risk (19). In other words, cognitive behavioural therapy has a primary focus on negative thoughts which are associated with eating, weight and body shape and this therapy would best fit the situation of the client of this research (20). People often go mood swings, low self-esteem and idealization of being a female and having a female body which is perpetuated in the society (21).Psychodynamic therapy is a different approach to handle people with anorexia nervosa as it views that people have conscious and unconscious desires which can lead to deviant behaviour (17). Focal psychodynamic therapy was devised as a standard version of time-oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy and the recommended therapy for Annette case is focal psychodynamic psychotherapy because the treatment which is time oriented can really impact to understand the unconscious conflicts of mind and body that are resulting in the disorder which is evident that her battle is her thought the being slim is better and she is fat in real (20). In the first phase of psychodynamic treatment, patient will be reluctant in opening up as they will be undergoing several emotional and feelings as a result of starvation, overthinking and finding ways to make things work such as Annette was having a hard time understanding that not eating would lead to other health issues but instead she was in belief that her mother is controlling her and there was no need of therapy (11). In the second phase of psychodynamic therapy, the factors which are contributing to the behavior are explored and discussed to find out alternative strategies for coping (11). According to therapists, the contributing factors are what result into rigid approach to fit in to the ideal image of the society (11). The last phase of this therapy is reconnection because those who are undergoing therapies or treatment might be feeling left out so it is important to let them merge in the society and help them reconnect (11). The behavioral therapy looks at what people are doing and how they are doing but psychodynamic theory look at why they are doing and it is viewed that behavior is result of previous and current situations (12).Several clinical research and randomized trials have been carried out to treat anorexia nervosa with cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapies. For example, Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of OutPatients (ANTOP) study was carried out in Germany (17). In this study, patient from 10 different universities were enrolled in 10 months treatment program focal psychodynamic (FPT) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and combined group and it was found out that cognitive behavioral therapy was effective in improvement in eating disorder and quick weight gain among patients (17). Another study was carried out to explore the efficacy of focal psychodynamic (FPT) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and a control group in treating anorexia nervosa (20). In another randomized controlled trial, both psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy are proven to be effective in treating social anxiety disorders and this indicate that it can be useful in treating anorexia (22). A study in UK-Italy patient was carried out to explore the impact of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy on patients and 99 patients were enrolled in the treatment (3). 40 sessions were provided to the participants over the period of 40 weeks and it was concluded that enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy can be effective to treat anorexia patients (3). 

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